MGT 3301, Principles of Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I At the end of this unit, you should be able to: 1. Explore core management

MGT 3301, Principles of Management 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I

At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

1. Explore core management functions.
1.1 Summarize a chosen organization, including the mission and vision statements and goals.

Required Unit Resources

Article: The Power of Giving Back: Learning from Others and Leading by Example Provides Full-Circle
Success (ULO 1.1):

The article explores how leaders can inspire others through their own actions (2 pages).

Article: Nudging Flow Through ‘SMART’ Goal Setting to Decrease Stress, Increase Engagement, and
Increase Performance at Work (ULO 1.1):

The lesson for this unit explores SMART goal setting and how to apply it. The below article explores this
concept further and looks at the ways SMART goal setting improves outcomes (29 pages).

Article: How to be a Hero: How Managers Determine What Makes a Good Manager Through Narrative
Identity Work (ULO 1.1):

This article explores the qualities that make a good leader (21 pages).

Unit Lesson

Lesson: Managerial Concepts (ULO 1.1)

Introduction

The first unit lesson begins your journey in the field of management with an introduction of principles of
managerial functions and concepts. Many scholars have identified four to six core management functions that
we will discuss throughout this course. Additionally, we will examine management from an organization
culture perspective.

One key motto for managers and leaders alike is continuous change and continuous improvement. Modern
day management styles have eroded from the past cycles of learning the hard way that there is no one way to
resolve issues and handle individuals who are as different as the grains of sand. Managers are always
learning and discovering new ways to guide their employees in an ever-changing world. The focus of Unit I is
to share the basic concepts of management and to see what that looks like today in styles of managing.

What is Management?

Management and the principles of management are an art and a science. Management as an art is applying
skills through a continual process of (managerial) principles that seeks to achieve concrete results.

Management as an art engrains a multi-facet dimension that over time increases the likelihood of
achievement. The science relationship is both a study and an application. Managers analyze problem solving
and decision making as an art to apply their knowledge to enable productivity growth and improve overall

UNIT I STUDY GUIDE

Core Management Functions and Concepts

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performance. The art and science of managing applies to running the business’s day to day operations and
short- and long-term planning.

Keep in mind, management is multi-functional, which may include an array of skills, knowledge, and training
at one or multiple levels within the organizational structure to accomplish objectives and goals. Objectives are
specific targets that describe an action plan to achieve the goal.

Goals

A prime example of using the art and science of management is setting goals. Goals are a road map
interchange that clarifies a direction, a guide, a plan of action that promotes a sense of mastery and
achievement. One rationale to goals and goal setting is to communicate to employees an action plan, an
achievement plan.

A best practice that is often used by mangers is SMART goals. A white paper authored by Doran, Miller, and
Cunningham in 1981 (as cited in Who Invented, 2020), created and introduced a distinctive method through
the creation of SMART—specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely—goals and objectives. The
SMART method helps all levels of management to create relevant, applicable goals to execute a core,
effective strategy to reach and achieve the set-goals.

Goals should be specific in nature, detailed and clearly defined and identifiable. An example of a specific
goal is increase staffing by 20% to support the sales increase for the past four quarters. Measurable goals
track and quantify positive and negative relations to determine a metric variance. An example of a
measurable goal is to reach a 20% staffing increase, hiring, training, and onboarding of 10 new hires per
month for the next 2 quarters.

Achievable goals must have ample time and resources for your goal’s success. Adaptations may be needed
to quantify the realistic parameter of the goal. For example, the goal may be to grow and increase the
department by 5% in the next 2 years. Realistic goals take into consideration if the goal is best for the
organization and if it is the best timing to introduce the goal. An example of a realistic goal is to convert all
paper files to electronical filing requirements by the end of the mandated 2-year allowance. Time is a limited
factor that should be realistic, yet achievable. An example of a timely goal is new hire orientation for 20
employees will be completed by the end of a 12-month cycle.

The basic outline of each parameter in setting goals helps to identify personal and professional wants and
needs and builds character and attitude. An important aspect of any plan is to be realistic in setting your
goals and embrace the possibility of flexibility for the changes that may need to be made to progress, grow,
and achieve success. Regardless of the chosen path to set and work toward in achieving goals, managers at
all levels must recognize the grave importance of using both science and art as steppingstones to
collaborative success.

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Concept of Leadership Styles

Managerial Styles

The daily ability (skill, competence, power) and agility (focus, resolution, and value) managers portray in any
given company is a defiant factor that determines organizational culture and organizational success.
Management style is a manner, a reflection, a portrayal of an organization managing employees, their tasks,
activities, and engagements that identifies and prioritizes the values that drive organizational success.
Understanding how powerful managerial style can influence employees and their work behavior plays a
crucial role in managing a multi-functional diverse organization. The successful manager has the keen ability
to cater their style to serve most employees and the organizational environment.

There are numerous studies and theories that explain an array of management styles, but none are more
indicative than the idiom of drivers such as motivation, engagement, and character. One popular
management style is participative management where all forms of communication are used: upward,
downward, and horizontal. This type of open communication parlays to the decision-making authority, which
is not based upon a hierarchical power or position. Employee autonomy is part of the company’s cultural norm
and daily practice. Most employees are highly educated and knowledgeable of their job, duty, task, and role in
the organization. An example of participative management is an engineering firm.

Motivational Styles

The behavioral mode of motivation serves as a descriptor of an action, or human interaction that initiates,
guides, and activates one extrinsically or intrinsically. A simple distinction between the two is to think of
extrinsic as outside or external whose rewards are based on praise, recognition, trophies, and plaques.
Intrinsic is inside or internal such as self-gratification, communicative, and problem-solver working toward win-
win resolutions. Although the term motivation is a process, the action of motivating deplores a guiding
coalition of attaining and retaining goal-oriented, human behavior.

Managers leadership style play a critical, influential role in employee morale, satisfaction, and engagement.
Many theorists have researched employee motivational drivers to study the concept of motivation. Some
research indicates a direct correlation between employee productivity and profit. The old saying of a happy
employee is a productive employee seems to be true. One theorist that has received recognition for his
research work and contribution on employee motivation is Frederick Herzberg, in particular, Herzberg’s Two-
Factor Theory. His theory’s base was humans are motivated by two things: motivation and hygiene factors.
Both are critical factors of employee motivation with one encouraging job satisfaction and the other preventing
job dissatisfaction. According to the Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (as cited in Kurt, 2022), there are four
possible combinations:

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The hygiene factors are pay, status, security, conditions, benefits, and interpersonal relationships that can
cause demotivation and job dissatisfaction, if not present in one’s work environment. Motivational factors such
as meaningful and challenging work, recognition, achievement, responsibility, and opportunity relates to
motivation and job satisfaction if present in the work environment. It is interesting to note how the portrayal of
attire and hygiene seem to be an astute factor in our self-assessment of satisfaction and dissatisfaction,
happy or unhappy, and content or not.

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Teamwork Styles

Teamwork management styles focus is developing a guiding coalition of value. The value of people and
employees, and the value of the workforce as individuals working together results in high productivity. The
value of relationships is the key component of teamwork management style. This type of style core is the
people and how much each is perceived as being a valuable member of the team.

Managers have a vital role regarding inclusivity and interpersonal relationships bridged through team building
activities. The optimal result is value which relates to an increase in productivity and overall job satisfaction. A
manager’s chosen style significantly impacts a team’s productivity that in turn affects the company’s bottom
line: profits! Managers’ jobs are to identify the appropriate technique, taking into consideration the situation
and needs of the team. For example, autocratic influence also referred to as commanding tends to be too
controlling with no worker autonomy that can quickly lead to poor morale.

Managers who are more like coaches (coaching style) to their employees—spending quality time mentoring,
training, and developing the “team” to win—must carefully distinguish between managing and micro-
managing.

Democratic or participative managers seek input and advice in the decision-making process. This type of
respect emphasizes employee collaboration and conflict resolution. The most effective manager uses the
affiliative style who encourages strong team collaboration with the primary focus on communication and
collaboration. Regardless of the chosen style selected for the specific task, the benefits of teams far outweigh
an individual’s solo attempt for organizational effectiveness.

Communication Styles

Communication is an important element in all aspects of a business for both the manager and the employees.
Having the ability to relate to others on all levels is a positive trait to which all managers should attest. Like
most attributes, communication may be easier for some than for others and be an area of continuous
development.

Open communication builds trust and collaboration between managers and employees. Direct communication
may improve employee morale through inclusion and camaraderie. One logical style of communication is
analytical style whose target audience is individuals whose job tasks are in data, numbers, figures, and
statistics. The advantage to this style is the person will use logic to arrive at a sound decision, but the
disadvantage is the managers role to keep this style of communicator calm when others may not use
formulas or mathematics to arrive at a decision.

The opposite of analytical style is an intuitive communicator. Their focus is intuition, assumptions, and results,
but they often miss some important details that were communicated. The dreamers and visionary
communicators use a functional style of communication. This type thrives on process, instructions, manuals,
and tools. The positive attribute of functional communicators is that the details inspire others to be a part of
the team, and team members are intrigued by the planning and functionality through this style. Managers who
value relationships, connection, and trust use a more personal style of communication. For managers that
may use emotions or gestures to relay a message or discussion, they may be offended by the lack of
understanding and empathy from others. If so, the personal style communicator will leverage the situation and
convincingly have buy-in from the others, which results in a win-win exchange for everyone!

Each of the core management functions and concepts covered in the Unit I Lesson provides the basic
principles of management with a focus on how the concepts are beneficial to employees and managers. The
unit’s lesson, readings, articles, and resources support the foundation of the basic understanding of the
principles of management from a manager’s perspective and employee collaboration.

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References

Kurt, S. (2022, October 17). Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory: Two-factor. Education Library.

Quilici, E. (2021, May). The power of giving back: Learning from others and leading by example provides full-

circle success. Pharmaceutical Executive Global Digest, 41(5), 34–35.

ct=true&db=bsu&AN=150840195&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Rostron, A. (2022). How to be a hero: How managers determine what makes a good manager through

narrative identity work. Management Learning, 53(3), 417–438.

ct=true&db=bsu&AN=157125557&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Weintraub, J., Cassell, D., & DePatie, T. P. (2021, June). Nudging flow through ‘SMART’ goal setting to

decrease stress, increase engagement, and increase performance at work. Journal of Occupational
and Organizational Psychology, 94(2), 230–258.

ct=true&db=asn&AN=150295864&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Who invented SMART goals? (2020, April 16). Reference.

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Suggested Unit Resources

Video: Exercising for Results: SMART Goal Setting (Optional):

The video provides an example of how SMART goal setting can be used in various parts of life. The transcript
for this video can be found by clicking on “Transcript” in the gray bar at the top of the video in the Films on
Demand database (4.39).

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